Located exactly in the Eastern Cordillera of southern Peru, in a mountain range at 2430 m.s. It is estimated that Machu Picchu was built in the fifteenth century between (1401-1500) and was part of the possessions of the Inca Pachacutec (who ruled between 1438 and 1471).
A BRIEF HISTORY
The first direct references to the first visitors to the ruins of Machu Picchu point to Agustín Lizárraga, a lessee from the land of Cuzco, who arrived at the site on July 14, 1902, in the company of 2 people named Enrique Palma y Justo. Ochoa
At the same time Hiram Bingham was in Cusco, who was a professor of history of the United States interested in finding the last Inca bastions of Vilcabamba. He knew about Lizárraga because of his contacts with the local landowners. That’s how he arrived at Machu Picchu on July 24, 1911, led by another lessee of the land, Melchor Arteaga.
Hiram Bingham took 50000 archaeological pieces clandestinely to the University of Yale, product of the excavations in Machu Picchu. For a long time they were claimed by the Peruvian government until in 2007 an agreement was reached. However, where this was not expected at the end of 2009, this did not happen. Recently, Yale University confirmed the return of 35,000 pieces in 2011, in commemoration of the centenary of the rediscovery of Machu Picchu by Bingham.
On the other hand, to understand better, the Inca Pacachutec was the first ruler of tahuantinsuyo, the highest representation of the Inca culture. Under his dominions, the empire was divided into those that would be known later in the 4 suyos.
The citadel was planned in a meticulous way, it is presumed that the Inca architects who designed the citadel, first elaborated models of clay or stone to be guided at the time of the deployment of the construction.
A characteristic that must be taken into account, are the Peruvian Andes that is a very rugged territory full of peaks, high mountains, rivers, rocky places, etc.
All these characteristics, offered an unfavorable terrain for agriculture, by then the Incas developed techniques that were perfected over time to work efficiently called platforms or terraces.
The way Machu Picchu was built can be observed in different levels for buildings, which can be accessed by stairs.
The city at that time was divided into 3 different areas: 2 populated areas and 1 agricultural sector, which is a vast system of terraces and irrigation channels.
Among the buildings of the Machu Picchu citadel were houses for both the local ruling class and the resident workers, who were responsible for cultivating the land around them.
We can say that the greatest attraction of Machu Picchu is the level of technological development achieved by the Incas, the architecture that characterizes it from the work with stones, where in some cases we can see that the joints are so perfect that not even a pin could fit.
Among all this stands out the most significant stone of the empire called “Intihuatana” or solar calendar, thanks to this stone the Incas could know with precision the seasons and the climate throughout the year.
The archaeological zone is accessible, either from the post-Inca roads that reach it, or by using the Hiram Bingham road (which ascends the slope of the Machu Picchu hill from the Puente Ruinas train station, located at the bottom of the canyon).
But more than this is the energy and peace that is home to this magnificent place, from the first moment we have arrived to these lands so mysterious and full of history.
The level achieved at the architectural level, hydrological management and adaptation to such a resistant site make the combination of these factors make this place a place with a great potential that you should know before dying.
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